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Questions and answers

During the construction process, many questions arise. There are not so many answers, despite the presence of the Internet and other benefits of civilization. And the time spent searching for the necessary information takes too much time. This section contains the most frequently asked questions and answers to them. 

First of all, it all depends on the design features of the house. Secondly, one of the main ways to significantly save money is to be personally present when purchasing all building materials (down to the nail!), Their correct selection, strict adherence to the phased construction plan, as well as the correct and rational organization of delivery, storage and consumption of building materials, correct selection of the necessary construction tools (buy reliable, not expensive branded ones) and much more.

When laying a brick wall, two methods are usually used simultaneously, since in this case the rows of bricks are tied up. The spoon row in the production of masonry work means that the bricks will be laid along the wall with a long edge, and the bond row with a short one. In other words, a row of spoon bricks with a long edge is parallel to the wall, and a row of bonded bricks is perpendicular.

Yes, there are special adhesives for aerated concrete blocks. They are made by several manufacturers (YUDK glue, Aerok, Ceresit glue, YTONG glue mixture, etc.). The quality of all adhesives is almost on the same level. Only builders can tell you which one is better to choose, based on their own experience. These adhesive solutions have a rather complex structure, which include many special water-retaining additives that prevent the aerated concrete from absorbing moisture, while weakening the masonry. When using special adhesives, the strength of the seam, even with its small thickness, remains high. In addition, when using glue for cellular concrete, you reduce heat losses in the joints, since it has a thermal conductivity several times lower than that of a conventional cement-sand mortar.

If financial possibilities allow you, then, of course, it is best to build from brick. This is an old, time-tested technology. Moreover, there is a huge catalog of ready-made projects of houses, of various layouts. Foam concrete blocks, roughly speaking, are not a building material that is suitable for the construction of load-bearing walls and the basement of a building. Of course, you can build them too, but at the same time it will be necessary to build a load-bearing beam structure that will take on the entire load-bearing load of the house. Aerated concrete and foam concrete blocks are an excellent building material, but only in conjunction with others. In general, if the construction is carried out in accordance with all the rules, then the total cost of the house will be approximately the same, regardless of the type of wall material used.

If you are not thinking of equipping an explosives warehouse or a chemical laboratory in the garage, then this is quite safe. For the purpose of convenience, in many projects they lay it. This is very convenient, since your car will be warm, and the tool and workshop will always be at hand.

The issue of insulation must be approached comprehensively, since proper and effective thermal insulation of the house will help you solve several problems at once:

  • reduce the cost of heating the house in the autumn-winter period,
  • create a healthy and comfortable microclimate indoors,
  • significantly increase the life of the walls and load-bearing structures of the house. Thermal insulation works can be performed using various thermal insulation materials, which are widely represented on the modern construction market.

Which material to choose, first of all, depends on the design of your house, on the material of the walls.

The ideal option is to carry out thermal insulation work in the process of building a house, it is the most effective and less expensive. All heat-insulating materials that are used to insulate houses are divided into inorganic and organic. Thermal insulation materials of inorganic origin are represented on the building materials market by the following nomenclature: mineral wool (slag and stone), glass wool, cellular concrete, aluminum foil. The most widely used mineral wool. This material has excellent sound and heat insulation characteristics, does not burn, is easy to install, and durable.

Its only drawback is the dust during installation and fragility. The group of thermal insulation materials of organic origin includes natural materials made from natural organic raw materials, such as wood and its products, wool, etc. They are distinguished into rigid heat-insulating materials (arbalite, peat, wood), made in the form of plates, and flexible heat-insulating materials (cardboard, building felt)

In your case, only an integrated approach is needed. Using a cork cover will not fix the situation. First of all, you need to insulate the underground space, find and eliminate the source of cold penetration. Secondly, the wooden floor must be redone by placing a heater under it, for example, foam sheets. From above, you can lay either cork or linoleum, but after laying sheets of plywood, at least 6 mm thick.

First of all, you need to receive the entire package of design and title documentation for the house and land, and then, according to the project, purchase material and directly proceed with construction work.

Before starting the calculations, it is necessary to calculate with high accuracy the area of ​​\u200b\u200bfuture walls (height, width, length, minus door and window openings) and determine their thickness. The consumption of a single brick to fill a volume of 1 m3 is 512 pieces, excluding the thickness of the joints, or 396 pieces, taking into account the joints. In terms of 1 m2 of masonry with a wall thickness of one brick – 128 and 102 pieces, respectively. Further, everything is simple. We multiply the resulting volume of walls by the consumption of bricks, referred to 1m3. The resulting number will be the required amount of bricks for the construction of your facility. Additionally, we double-check ourselves – we multiply the area of ​​\u200b\u200bthe walls by the number of bricks related to 1 m2. The quantity should be about the same.

 

In all currently produced types of bricks, the difference lies in the degree of strength, the level of frost resistance, as well as in other physical and technical characteristics. It is impossible to say which brick is better and more economical, it all depends on the specific features of this construction object. Reliability and efficiency are two competing parameters, you will have to look for a compromise. In any case, for reliable construction, high-quality high-strength bricks are required.

It is better not to use foam at all. Styrofoam, although it is the cheapest insulating material, it also supports combustion. If you still chose it as a heater, take measures to protect it from direct sunlight (from ultraviolet radiation). Its safest use is as a heater in the space between the decorative facade and the main load-bearing wall.

First you need to lay the substrate over the entire area of ​​\u200b\u200bthe room where the laminate will be laid. There is no need to save on the substrate, as it is a protection against dampness and smooths out uneven floors. It is necessary to start laying the laminate strictly from one side of the room. It is necessary to leave small indents (about 1-1.5 cm) from the wall on all sides. Lay in a checkerboard pattern so that the longitudinal seams do not match. The laminate from the side of the end plane has special grooves, with the help of which the coating is mounted. There should be no dirt in these grooves. The board is carefully brought into engagement and additionally, through the guide, is compacted with a slight tapping. If laying a laminate seems to be a rather complicated procedure for you, then you can spread another floor covering on the floor that is easier to install, say carpet or linoleum. The principle of installation is similar: we open the floor with a primer (so that it does not dust and is cleaned of debris), we lay the substrate, we roll out the floor covering. As a substrate, you can use cork material, which is warmer and more environmentally friendly. The laid flooring should be pressed along the perimeter of the room with a plinth.

The tile has the following advantages – high strength, durability, fire resistance, environmental friendliness, excellent appearance. It is able to provide excellent heat and sound insulation. The two main disadvantages are high price and weight. Regular (traditional) slate is more suitable for small buildings. It is quite simple to use, reliable, has a high level of frost resistance. One of the downsides is that it darkens over time and loses its aesthetic appearance. Euro slate is a fairly durable and lightweight material with good performance characteristics. One, but a big minus – short-lived. If money allows you, then we can recommend equipping the roof with ceramic tiles.

 

Yes, there are some problems. So, for example, there may be problems with pouring the foundation, but they can be solved by using special additives in the concrete solution, which allow high-quality concrete work even at low temperatures. There are also pluses. If you managed to get freshly cut and processed wood in winter, then products made from it dry more evenly and faster in winter without deforming. In any case, it is better to consult with a specialist, specifying the list of specific works that you plan to carry out in the winter. What should be the temperature of the masonry mortar during construction work in the winter at low temperatures? The temperature value of the masonry mortar depends directly on the outside air temperature. If the air temperature is -20°C, then the temperature of the masonry mortar is at least +10°C, and at -10°C of the outside air – at least +5°C. Masonry mortar must be developed quickly to ensure not only the ease of laying the upper rows, but also to ensure better compaction of the mortar in the lower rows of bricks.

 

There is an old proven method that can affect the quality of the freezing masonry: ensure sufficient internal heating of the space of the lower floors. So, during the construction of the first floor, it is necessary to heat the basement, during the construction of the second floor – the first, etc. For these purposes, special diesel and gas heaters are usually used, which allow heating the room to 40-50 ° C. This temperature in the room is maintained for 5-6 days, and then gradually reduced.

Architectural design is an independent part of the Project of the house as a whole. With this design, the placement of various objects on the site (buildings, structures, paths) is worked out and a space-planning decision is made. At the first stage of architectural design, a technical task is drawn up based on the requirements and wishes of the customer, taking into account the actual conditions of a particular site planned for development.

At the second stage, an agreement is drawn up for the development of a preliminary design, which will form the basis of the approved space-planning decisions.

It is at this stage that the number of storeys of the building is determined, the number and size of rooms, the planning of window and door openings, the roof structure is selected, the types of wall and finishing materials are selected. At the third stage, the preliminary design of the house is coordinated and approved and the so-called album of architectural solutions, in other words, the Project of the house, is prepared. Without the presence of the Project of the house, it is impossible to obtain the appropriate permit for construction work.

The project of the house (architectural solutions albums) must contain the following main drawings:

  • general plan,
  • floor plans, indicating the axes of the premises, planning marks and main dimensions,
  • an explication of each of the premises with the obligatory indication of the exact area, location of door, window and other openings,
  • longitudinal sections of the building with the application of the main heights and all planning marks,
  • drawings of the facade with the application of the necessary marks and levels. Tell me, please, can the strength of the foundation depend on the size of the fraction of sand used in the mortar? The quality of the concrete solution, first of all, depends on the presence of clay in the sand used. The more clay in the sand, the weaker the concrete is. For the preparation of high quality concrete mortars, sand with fraction sizes from 1.25 to 5 mm is used. It is not recommended to use sand with a grain size of less than 0.14 and more than 5 mm. The content of the so-called elutriable impurities in the sand should be no more than 1%. 

In the manufacture of high quality concrete solutions, it is highly undesirable to use limestone crushed stone, as well as brick battle. It is best to use crushed stone as a filler, which is made by crushing rocks. The compressive strength of such crushed stone, in a water-saturated state, should be more than 1.5 times greater than the planned strength of concrete.

Yes, indeed, even with proper storage, cement can lose its qualities. So experts say that during the year of storage, cement can lose up to 30% of its properties, its “strength”. If you are not completely sure about the prescription of cement, do not use it in masonry work, especially when building a foundation.

When preparing even the most durable concrete, the consumption of cement should not exceed 550 kg/m3. A higher content of cement is not only unjustified, but also extremely harmful.

One of the most difficult soils are alluvial and peat. Peat soils are a mixture of clay and sandy soils containing plant residues. Their main disadvantage is a high degree of compressibility. In addition, peat soil has an aggressive environment that adversely affects the concrete parts of the structure. The most reliable for the construction of the foundation, if you do not take into account the rocks, are sandy soils with a predominant particle fraction of 2 mm or more.

In cases of building a house on soils with a high degree of heaving, it is necessary to equip the foundation in the form of a monolithic rigid structure, including not only the outer perimeter of the house, but all parts of the foundation located inside. The block foundation in this respect has low characteristics of monolithic structural rigidity.

The basement of the house and the basement are very often built using foundation blocks, especially in industrial construction on areas with good soils. When using this method in frequent construction, and even more so in the case of the technological use of the basement and basement, after installing the block structure, you will have a large amount of work on waterproofing and interior decoration, which in turn will require additional costs. Experts, based on many years of experience, argue that if you combine the process of finishing concrete walls with work on monolithic concreting, you can save up to 30% of money. For example, instead of formwork during pouring, you can use a “facing-formwork” slab half a brick thick “for jointing”, which in the end does not require a complex of additional finishing works.

 

At the beginning, the surface of the wall that has sinks must be cleaned with an iron brush and rinsed thoroughly. In case of large sinks, use a solution containing coarse sand. For good adhesion of the mortar to the wall, use cement grade not lower than M400, and the mortar or concrete is a step higher than that used when pouring the wall. It is recommended to use primers like “betonokontakt” and modern material like MAXBOND to achieve a good result.

MAXBOND special resin is designed to ensure the adhesion of concretes and concrete mortars to smooth surfaces. In other words, MAXBOND is not a sealant, but a special active layer for high-quality setting of concrete layers, for creating new concrete layers on old concrete. It can also be used to level screeds using concrete mortars of minimum thickness.

Due to the fact that the heat-insulating layer is recommended to be laid outside the premises, the main requirements for the heat-insulating materials of the basement and basement floors are good resistance to changes in air temperature and humidity, high water repellency. For these purposes, the most acceptable is the foam.

Styrofoam, for example, when compared with mineral wool, is able to absorb moisture 100 times less, while it has half the thermal conductivity. With proper insulation of the basement, it is possible to ensure that the temperature in it is not less than + 5 ° C.

First of all, the water resistance of a concrete solution depends on the structure of the solution, on the presence of voids and pores. This parameter depends on two things, on the correct selection of components and on the quality of the preparation of the concrete mixture. One of the main values ​​affecting the water resistance of concrete is excess saturation with water.

When concrete dries and hardens, water evaporates, leaving communicating voids and capillaries, which affect the water resistance of concrete.

For the preparation of high quality concrete, another of the most important indicators is the ratio of the mass of water to the mass of cement, which numerically should be about 80:100%.

At the same time, the amount of cement should ensure the filling of all pores between the grains of sand, and its grade should not be lower than M300.

The size of the gravel or large crushed stone used should not be more than 1/3 of the wall thickness of the structure being erected. In addition, you must ensure the correct conditions for concrete hardening, to prevent its rapid drying at high outside temperatures, freezing – at low. The use of excellent quality concrete for the arrangement of the foundation does not exclude the fulfillment of the basic requirements for waterproofing underground structures and foundations.

 

Yes, this method of protecting concrete structures is called “iron”. It is most often used on concrete floors. With the help of this type of plaster, a special film is created on the surface, which, in addition to excellent waterproofing properties, also gives the surface high strength. In some cases, “iron” is also used for walls. The technology for performing work and preparing the mortar is quite simple – a greasy cement mortar (1: 1 sand with cement) is applied to the concrete surface, and then grouting is carried out, while clogging the smallest pores of the concrete surface with mortar. We pay special attention to the fact that “iron” cannot be used as waterproofing for basements or foundations.

 

Slab foundations have a very high level of reliability when performing construction work on problematic soils. As proof of this fact, more than 80% of buildings and structures in St. Petersburg were built using the slab type of foundation. The second indisputable advantage is the simplicity of its execution: they dug a pit, arranged a sand cushion, compacted the soil, installed formwork around the perimeter, made a reinforcing cage, and poured it with concrete. So the full cycle of preparatory work before the delivery of concrete, for example, for a foundation of 10×10 m2, will take 3-4 days for a team of 4 people.

The slab foundation has a structure of the correct geometric shape, so you should not have any problems when performing calculations. First you need to know the area and thickness of the planned foundation. Let’s, for example, take a foundation with an area of ​​100 m2 (10×10 meters) and a thickness of 30 cm. Having performed a simple arithmetic recalculation 10x10x0.3 = 30 m3, we obtain the estimated consumption of concrete mortar for arranging a smooth slab, excluding stiffeners and basement ribs. Having accepted the conditional cost of 1 m3 of concrete 100 c.u. we get 3000 USD, which must be paid only for concrete. Next, we calculate the required amount of metal reinforcement. With an optimal mesh spacing of the reinforcing cage of 20 cm, for the whole house with an area of ​​100 m2, it will be necessary to lay 5 rods with a diameter of 12 mm and a length of 10 linear meters per meter of width, and the same amount per meter of foundation length. The result is 100 bars x 10 m = 1000 linear meters.

It is also necessary not to forget that for each connection of the lower and lower parts of the reinforcing cage, a rod 20 cm long is required, or, in other words, 5 rods per 1 linear meter together of the lower and upper parts of the frame. Given that the width and length of the reinforcing cage is 10 meters, and the vertical reinforcement is carried out in increments (cells) of 20×20 cm with a total area of ​​100 m2, then additionally 50×50 = 2500 bars 20 cm long or, in other words, 500 meters of running reinforcement . In total, for the arrangement of a smooth slab foundation with an area of ​​​​100 m2 and a thickness of 30 cm, reinforcement of 1000 + 500 = 1500 linear meters will be required.

К данной цифре необходимо еще добавить около 100 м.п. арматуры, необходимой на стыковку их по длине. Итого 1600 м.п. или 1800 кг металла. При средней стоимости 1 тонны арматуры диаметром 12 мм, применяемой для строительства плитного фундамента, 1000 у.е, то на наш расчетный фундамент потребуется около 1800 у.е. Теперь рассчитает количество вязальной проволоки.  We take an average of 15 cm of knitting wire for tying one joint. For a frame with a step of 20 cm, it is necessary to knit joints at 50 points per 1 m2 or 5000 points per 100 m2. In total, knitting wire is required: 1 m2 \u003d 75 linear meters, and for 100 m2 \u003d 7500 m.p. knitting wire. On average, there are 100 m.p. in 1 kg of wire with a diameter of 1.2 mm, then we conventionally assume that 7500 m.p. will weigh approximately 750 kg. The average price of such a wire is about 1800 USD. per ton. In total, we will spend about 1800×0.75 = 1350 USD on knitting wire.  To fill the slab foundation, we need some more materials for arranging the foundation formwork. So, in particular, for a foundation with an area of ​​100 m2, about 2 m3 of wooden boards, 120 m2 of geotextiles and 20 m3 of sand will be needed. The total estimated cost of our calculated foundation, taking into account the cost of concrete reinforcement (about 135 USD per 1 m3) and taking into account unforeseen expenses, can be about 13,500 USD. or 135 USD per 1 m2.

 

Yes, experts advise laying geotextiles or polyethylene film during concreting in order to avoid leakage of cement laitance, which directly depends on the strength of concrete. Also, the presence of a polyethylene film between the soil and concrete will cut off capillary moisture and, to a large extent, hinder its penetration into the pores of concrete.

Socle ribs in slab foundations are usually equipped during construction in areas with very swampy soils and in seismically active zones. They must be made in the form of a monolithic structure, that is, the stiffeners and the reinforcing cage of the slab must have a single structure. In the construction of residential buildings, the base ribs are usually made of precast concrete blocks.

Defects in reinforced concrete products can appear both during their production and during transportation, installation or operation. An obvious defect is a defect that cannot be corrected to the level of the requirements of regulatory documentation.

Such defects include a thin protective layer of concrete, broken blocks, incorrect location of embedded elements, etc. If the defect affects only the appearance of the product or it can be corrected, and also one that does not affect its other physical and technical characteristics, then these defects are classified as implicit.

These issues are faced by almost every developer who performs work on the construction of brick or foam block houses. Installing floor slabs is a process that requires a fair amount of experience, and frankly, not very safe.

At first glance, everything is simple – I attached the stove, put it down, bandaged it and that’s it.

In reality, it often happens that at a construction site, the installation of reinforced concrete structures is carried out by completely unprepared people who do not have the appropriate qualifications.

In this case, the customer must be present in person during installation and acceptance of work.

In order to be able to qualitatively perform this function, at least you need to know a few basic principles and rules for the installation of reinforced concrete structures:

  • it is strictly forbidden to install plates during snowfall or rain,
  • before laying the floor slabs, it is imperative to check the overall “horizon” of the walls or foundation, which must be completely covered,
  • in the presence of a working draft, it is strictly forbidden to deviate from the schemes for ligation of plates approved in it,
  • around the entire perimeter of the wall, even before the laying of the slabs, a concrete reinforced belt should be equipped,
  • it is necessary to install the slabs in such a way that there is enough space left to the outer (street) edge of the slab for the thermal insulation of the slab,
  • make sure that the thickness of the concrete layer on which the slabs are directly laid should not be more than 20 mm,
  • if it is necessary to create technological holes on the surface of the slab, make sure that this is done without damaging the reinforcement,
  • after installation work, it is necessary to install and weld anchor fasteners, as well as carefully seal these places with concrete mix,
  • when checking the horizontal level, their difference in height of the upper plane of the plates should not be more than 20 mm. Can you help me understand the existing marking of hollow-core slabs that are used as a floor? Currently, hollow-core floor slabs are made from heavy concrete and reinforced with so-called stressed reinforcement.

The letter marking of these plates, first of all, includes information about the geometry of the holes and the points of support of the plate:

  • PC – a plate with round voids, support is carried out on 2 sides,
  • PKK – a plate with round voids, support is carried out on 4 sides,
  • PKT – a plate with round voids, support is carried out on 3 sides,
  • PG – a slab with pear-shaped voids. The complete marking of floor slabs mainly consists of several groups. So, for example, the full marking of a floor slab may look like – PK 63-12-8 AtV.

From the above, we know that a PC is a floor slab with round voids. Further, all information is divided into two groups. In the first group, the overall dimensions of the floor slab are indicated, and in the second, the design load and type of reinforcement used.

So the first digit of the first group indicates its length (in our case it is 63 dm or 630 cm), and the second pair of digits indicates its width in decimeters (12 dm or 120 cm). The figure of the second group indicates the calculated load in hundreds of kgf/m2 without taking into account its own weight (800 kg/m2), and the letters indicate the class of prestressing reinforcement used (AtV).

In cases where non-heavy grades of concrete are used in the manufacture of blocks, the second group may additionally contain information about its type (for example, C-silicate). When marking floor slabs, there may also be a third group (in our example it is not shown) in which additional information on non-standard products is encrypted. So, for example, this marking may indicate the seismic resistance of the plate, indicate the number and presence of embedded parts, etc.

Thus, the marking of the slab PK 60-15-8 Ca indicates that this product is a multi-hollow floor slab with support on two sides, 6 meters long, 1.5 meters wide, capable of withstanding a design load of 800 kg / m2, seismic resistant.

Yes, many people confuse mortar and concrete. This is quite understandable, since the hardened mass is outwardly almost identical, and cement is more often used as a binder in both cases. One major difference is in the type of placeholder.

The mortar contains fine-grained aggregate, while concrete must necessarily have large fractions of gravel or crushed stone. They are also distinguished by their scope. The solution is used to connect structural materials, as well as a plastering or finishing material.

Concrete is used as an aggregate for the manufacture of panels or blocks, and as a mixture for pouring foundations or other monolithic load-bearing structures. How effectively can glass or ceramic surfaces be cleaned of mortar particles? Even with all diligence, you will not be able to keep the surface completely clean during repair and construction work.

If mortar particles can be removed from the walls, wiped or painted over, then it will have to be carefully cleaned from the surface of ceramics and glass. To begin with, we recommend trying to clean the surface with softwood sticks (pine) so as not to damage or scratch the enamel or glass. If this does not help, purchase special glass cleaners based on organic acids, which not only effectively clean the surface, but also do not leave scratches on it.

Gypsum mortar for interior work is very easy to prepare. It is necessary to pour water into the container, pour gypsum constantly stirring. It is necessary to mix thoroughly until a homogeneous mass is formed. Make sure there are no lumps.

The preparation of the solution must be carried out immediately before the work is done, since the gypsum mixture sets and hardens very quickly. To slow down the rate of hardening of the gypsum mortar, fine sifted sand is sometimes added to it. We do not recommend doing this, because sand significantly reduces the strength of the gypsum mortar.

Prepare gypsum mortar in small portions. With a new batch, carefully clean the container from the remnants of the previous one, since even a small presence of the old solution will significantly affect the quality and speed of hardening (it increases several times) of the gypsum mortar. For the preparation of small batches of gypsum mortar, an old rubber ball cut in half is perfect.

After preparing and developing the next batch of the solution, you simply turn it out, thereby providing a clean container for preparing the next batch. How to prepare a clay solution? To start work, in about a day, clay is soaked. To do this, the clay is poured with water and kneaded to a state of uniform, “sour cream-like” mass.

During the day, all organic substances in the clay float, and solids (pebbles) settle. The finished mixture must be filtered through a sieve. If you use purchased clay, then it has already gone through the industrial cleaning process and it is not necessary to soak it for a day. Sand is added to the clay at the rate of 1:3 or 1:4 (for 1 part of clay 3-4 parts of sand) and also mixed thoroughly. The resulting solution should be of such a consistency that it does not stick to a spatula or shovel. All solution is ready to use.

For high-quality performance of masonry work, it is recommended to use a cement-clay mortar of the following optimal proportion: 1 part of cement, 0.7 parts of prepared clay dough and 6.5 parts of sand (1: 0.7: 6.5). The presence of a clay component makes the solution more plastic and easy to use.

It is definitely impossible to say which jumpers are suitable, since it all depends on the width and bearing load of the openings. For external load-bearing walls, it is recommended to use lintels made of heavy concrete, reinforced with stressed reinforcement. When installing the jumpers, pay special attention to the correct position of the jumpers during installation work. Its installation must be carried out strictly in a certain position relative to the wall, pay attention to which plane should be at the bottom and which one at the top (it matters!).

If the openings are larger than 1.5 meters, then the recommended grip of the lintel for support should not be less than 25 cm.

The recommended depth of support for floor slabs, according to the recommendations of various manufacturers of aerated concrete blocks, is about 15 cm. The minimum allowable depth for supporting floor slabs cannot be less than 12 cm. In the event that the building has only one floor and wooden floors, then it is not at all necessary. A reinforced concrete belt must be arranged during the construction of multi-storey buildings, on which reinforced concrete floors are installed.

Yes, this is how it usually works in practice. In the support zone, all voids of the floor slab from the end side are filled with effective insulation, and all remaining space up to the outer wall is filled with cellular concrete or brickwork.

It is recommended to carry out a “cushion” between the floor slab and the outer edge of the wall at least 14 cm. How to properly lay wooden floor beams on a wall of silicate or aerated concrete blocks.

Is it necessary to make a concrete reinforcing belt? When arranging wooden floors on block walls in private low-rise construction, a concrete belt is not at all necessary; a sufficient condition will be the creation of a leveling layer of cement-sand mortar 3–5 cm thick.

The ends of the beams, which are found in places of contact with the walls, must be treated with an antiseptic and overtones with roofing material.

Monolithic slabs can be supported directly on block masonry, without additional arrangement of a concrete reinforced belt. The main typical mistake in the arrangement of monolithic floors is the pouring of a layer of concrete over the entire surface with access to the outer edge of the wall. Filling is considered correct, in which the slab is not topped up to the outer wall, and its ends are effectively insulated and laid flush with the outer wall with brickwork or appropriate blocks.

When laying load-bearing reinforced concrete lintels on a wall made of aerated concrete blocks, the support depth, with openings up to 180 cm wide, should not be less than 25 cm. This rule applies to houses built from silicate, cinder concrete and expanded clay concrete blocks.

All bricks produced in our country and abroad are divided into grades according to the level of frost resistance (from F-15 to F-100). The higher the indicator, the stronger the brick. This indicator is directly dependent on the price, the higher the frost resistance, the theoretically the brick should be more expensive.

This indicator is determined in the laboratory by the manufacturer by means of practical mechanical loads: the test sample of the brick is immersed in water for 8 hours, then placed in a special freezer for the same time.

This experiment takes place until this sample begins to crumble and crack, that is, its characteristics are lost and the structure is destroyed. The number of such cycles is the indicator of frost resistance, which is indicated when marking brick manufacturers (not less than the indicated number of cycles).

This brick is best used for arranging internal partitions for facing with plaster. A distinctive feature of semi-dry pressing bricks from ordinary ceramic bricks is the characteristic conical non-through voids.

For wall cladding, it is desirable to use a brick of the same brand and the same level of frost resistance as the brick of the main wall. This is due to the fact that for greater durability of the wall structure, materials with the same physical and technical parameters, such as thermal linear expansion coefficient, vapor permeability, frost resistance, are most acceptable.

When building with double bricks, it increases the speed of masonry work and reduces the consumption of mortar. Ultimately, using a double brick instead of a single brick will save about 20% of the money.

No, it is practically impossible to assess its quality by the color of the brick. Some experienced masons, by a combination of signs, can, as they say “by eye”, determine its quality.

For Ukraine, as well as central Russia, according to the requirements of the regulatory framework, the thickness of the outer brick wall must be at least 1 meter. In practice, they mainly build brick walls with a thickness of 2.5 bricks, followed by insulation, which makes it possible to obtain rather warm walls, as well as significantly reduce the load on the foundation.

In order to avoid the appearance of “efflorescence” and colored spots on a brick wall, it is necessary:

  • do not carry out masonry work “for jointing” with solutions containing antifreeze additives,
  • perform masonry with high quality and accuracy, prevent spreading of masonry mortar on the front surface of the brick,
  • completely eliminate the use of liquid mortars when performing facing masonry, which can leave streaks on the surface,
  • do not perform facing masonry using the “freeze” method,
  • perform high-quality waterproofing of the wall from the foundation, in order to prevent capillary “sucking” of moisture from wet foundation elements,
  • properly equip the drainage system: cornices, plums, visors, etc.,
  • strictly observe the technology in between masonry work, for example, do not leave the brickwork uncovered from rain or snow at the end of the work shift.

Vysoly not only spoil the appearance of the facade of the building, but also to a large extent, contribute to the destruction and aging of the building material. Salt destroys the outer surface of the wall, it begins to crumble, and rain, snow and wind complete the process of destruction. The main danger lies not so much outside, but also inside – salts crystallizing in the thickness of the material destroy it from the inside.

The process of combating efflorescence should solve two problems at once: removing stains from the surface of a brick wall and effectively protecting it from further occurrence. The first stage is achieved through the use of special cleaners, and the second – with the help of so-called water repellents. Depending on the type and location of efflorescence, an individual plan is developed to combat it.

Of course, it is better to leave this work to specialists, but you, in principle, can do it.

The only thing you have to experiment a little is to treat small sections of the wall with various solutions and evaluate how effectively each of them copes with efflorescence.

For cleaning and getting rid of efflorescence, it is recommended to use washes, which are a mixture of surfactants, inorganic and organic acids.

When using these compounds, be extremely careful, use protective gloves and goggles. The treatment process is very simple: dilute the wash in water, apply to the wall with a sprayer or brush, wait 10-30 minutes, rinse with plenty of water. In order to avoid the re-formation of efflorescence, it is necessary to treat the brick wall with a special water-repellent impregnation – a water repellent. This must be done immediately after washing and drying the wall. Some experienced builders treat a brick wall with a water repellent immediately after the brickwork dries, without waiting, efflorescence forms on it.

Silicone (organosilicon) compounds are considered one of the effective water repellents.

On the surface of the treated wall, they form a thin silicone film that protects against water penetration into the material, but at the same time, without changing the appearance and color of the material, without interfering with air exchange.

This coating also reduces the degree of wall contamination, improves thermal insulation characteristics, and also has antifungal and antibacterial properties. Water repellents must be applied to a dry wall surface with a brush or roller. The liquid solution penetrates precisely into those places where water usually seeks to get.  When dried, the surface of the wall acquires water-repellent properties, while depending on the type of wall, the composition used and the climate, they can retain their properties for up to 5 years or more. How much can 1 m3 of brickwork weigh? One cubic meter of brickwork, depending on the type of brick used, can weigh from 1600 to 1800 kg.

 

Specialized construction companies that have in their arsenal modern reusable formwork, special equipment for transporting and supplying concrete mix have the ability, with a small number of workers at the construction site, to perform large volumes of work, which are several times higher than the pace of work in the construction of the classical way.  They have a well-established technology and work procedure: bringing to the site, warehousing, installation and dismantling of special formwork. The use of monolithic construction allows not only to reduce the cost per square meter of housing, but to obtain a high-quality seamless wall structure with excellent heat and sound insulation characteristics. In addition, the use of monolithic construction technology makes it possible to realize the most original ideas of architects and developers.

 

Currently, there are special additives to mortars that allow minimizing the consumption of water in concrete, as well as speeding up the curing rate of the concrete mortar, which makes it possible to ensure its normal hardening even at temperatures up to 15 degrees below zero.

According to specialists in monolithic construction, buildings built using this technology are on average 15-20% lighter and cheaper than brick ones. In addition, you additionally receive savings on the arrangement of a lighter foundation. You should also not forget the fact that the final cost of building a monolithic house directly depends on the complexity of the project.

Compared to conventional plaster mixes, how much more expensive are they? The modern building materials market has a large number of different dry mixes from various manufacturers, including mixes with antifreeze additives. So some dry mixes with antifreeze additives are able to provide high quality plaster work at temperatures up to 10 degrees below zero. An example is the plaster for foam concrete and brickwork Weber.stuk cement Winter. It is characterized by high adhesion, sufficient water and frost resistance, has a grain size of 0.4 mm. This plaster is specially designed for plastering work in the autumn-spring period, when there is a high probability of rain and night frosts.

  The plastered surface of Weber.stuk cement Winter perfectly withstands subsequent finishing with decorative plaster, ceramic tiles and painting with decorative paints. Please note that it is not recommended to use this mixture for repairing and leveling floors, even at normal temperatures. The average price of Weber.stuk cement Winter for a 25 kg bag is on average about 15-17 USD.

No, as there are some restrictions depending on the thickness of the brick used in terms of the number of spoons between the bond rows. To perform masonry from a single brick (65 mm thick), it is necessary to lay one bonded row for 6 rows of brickwork. When performing work with the use of thickened bricks (88 mm thick), it is necessary to lay one row of bonded masonry for 5 rows of brickwork. It is also necessary to control that the vertical seams in 4 rows of spoon bricks are overlapped by spoons of adjacent rows by about half a brick, and the seams of the upper row should be overlapped by pokes of the 6th row by a quarter of a brick.

This brickwork is commonly called “five-row”. Such a brick ligation scheme is possible only if the thickness of the laid out wall is a brick or more.

It is profitable to buy bricks directly from factories if there is no official dealer of the factory or a representative of this factory in your region. For the most part, many companies practice all kinds of discounts or promotions.

If you purchase building materials in spontaneous construction markets, then the price of a brick can differ by almost 2 times from the manufacturer’s price. Keep in mind that the higher the brand of brick, the more expensive it will cost. So, for example, a brick of the M125 brand is 10% more expensive than a brick of the M100 brand, and the M200 brand is 20-30% more expensive than the M100. Pay attention to the fact that it is more profitable to buy a large-sized ceramic block or double brick.

The following dynamics can be traced here: with an increase in the overall size of a brick by 50%, its cost increases only by 20%, moreover, you additionally save on the amount of required masonry mortar.

In order to reduce the weight of the brick, as well as to increase the thermal insulation properties, during its production, sawdust is specially added to the prepared raw mass, which burn out during the heat treatment of the brick (during firing) and leave micropores. Due to the high internal porosity of the material, the brick becomes warmer, has a lower density, and acquires excellent sound and heat insulation characteristics. In addition to standard-sized bricks, many manufacturers offer large-format porous ceramic blocks (510x260x21 mm), etc., which are ideal for laying exterior walls that do not require additional insulation.

For the arrangement of window and door frames, openings are specially left in the brickwork, they are blocked from above with special lintels (wedge-shaped, ordinary brick or precast concrete). When installing with the help of ordinary jumpers at the level of the planned top of the opening, a special formwork is made of wooden boards with a thickness of about 40 – 50 mm.

A solution is laid on it in a small layer (up to 2 cm) and reinforcement is laid out (round timber about 4-6 mm in diameter or bundle steel) at the rate of 1 reinforcement for every half-brick wall thickness. The ends of the reinforcement must be inserted into the walls by at least 25 cm.

The installation of wedge-shaped lintels is also carried out on a pre-arranged formwork, the only difference is that the brick must be laid on the edge from the edges to the middle of the lintel, maintaining a slight slope at the edges to form a wedge (thrust). In some cases, it is allowed to arrange jumpers from tarred wooden boards with a thickness of about 50 – 60 mm, while the ends should be deepened into the piers at a distance of at least 15 – 25 cm.

If it is necessary to produce brickwork in the floor or a quarter of a brick, then it must be specially reinforced with reinforcing wire or metal mesh. Reinforcement is performed in the seams every 4-6 rows of masonry.

Let’s first decide which brick is considered defective. According to GOST, brick marriage is considered to be underburnt or burnt, which is not recommended for sale. How can you find out how correctly a red brick is fired? Carefully inspect the brick, if its core has a more saturated color than the “body”, and when hit the brick rings, then you are holding a good quality brick in your hands.

If the brick has a characteristic mustard color, and upon impact you hear a dull sound, then this brick is not burned. T

Which brick is afraid of moisture and has low frost resistance.

The burnt brick has a characteristic appearance – there is melting on the surface, in some places a burnt black color, fuzzy dimensions and geometry, it seems to be “bursting” from the inside. Experts say that if the burnt brick has not changed its shape geometry, and only the core has a black color, then this brick has high strength, it becomes, as it were, “iron”.

Such a brick is perfect for brickwork in damp places.

The viscosity or mobility of the masonry mortar is determined by immersing a special reference cone into it. So for laying a solid brick, the reference cone should have a draft of 7-14 cm, for laying a hollow brick – no more than 7-8 cm of the draft of the cone. When performing masonry work with solid bricks in hot weather, the mobility of the mortar should be about 12 – 14 cm of cone draft.

In the process of using the mortar, it must be constantly mixed, since heavy components can settle, while the solution becomes heterogeneous and stratifies.

Bricklaying technology provides for several options for laying bricks. So some masters begin to raise the wall on one side to a height of 2 – 4 rows, then proceed to lay out the corner, after that they transfer the beacons to the other corner and then sequentially lay out all the walls. Other masters, on the contrary, tend to lay out the first row along the entire perimeter of the building, checking the squareness and accuracy of the masonry in terms of, and after that they only “go” in height.

In order to perform high-quality brickwork, it is necessary to pay special attention to the uniform distribution of the mortar on the bed. From its correct spreading, in the final result, the quality and strength of the seam depends. When laying a spoon row of bricks, the masonry mortar must be spread with a layer about 80 – 100 mm wide, for a bonded row – about 200 – 220 mm wide. It is necessary to carry out the thickness of the layer (bed) within 15 – 20 mm, which will ensure the thickness of the masonry joint is about 10 – 12 mm.

Before performing masonry work, bricks must be dipped into water for a while, since when dry, the brick strongly takes water from the solution, which entails a significant decrease in the strength of the masonry.

One of the features of working with hollow bricks is that it is necessary to carefully monitor that the internal holes (voids), as little as possible, are filled with mortar. If you do not pay attention to this, then as a result you will get a brick wall with lower thermal performance. To avoid this, choose a hollow brick with a smaller diameter void, also use a more viscous mortar.

Dutiks are called lime lumps in the structure of a brick. In the production of bricks, clay raw materials containing limestone are used. In the process of grinding, clay raw materials crumble together with limestone. If at least 0.5 mm of limestone grains remain, then expect a catch. Limestone absorbs moisture and “swells”, while destroying the structure of the brick and chipping off its pieces.

With a brick spalling depth of more than 6 mm, the technical control department of a brick factory rejects it, if less, then it “lets it through” for sale. The facades of houses built from such bricks have a “pockmarked” external structure.

It is better not to use a brick with the presence of dutiks as a front material.

“Wasteless” masonry is a special type of masonry, which is used in the construction of walls requiring further plastering. When performing hollow masonry, the joints at the outer surface of the wall, on which the plaster will be directly applied, are not filled with mortar. With this method, the plaster mortar has greater adhesion to the wall surface.

It is possible to finish facades using porcelain stoneware at any time of the year, including at low (negative) temperatures, since there are no “wet” processes in the arrangement of ventilated facades. Insulation is fastened in most cases with the help of special dowels; sub-zero temperatures do not affect the quality of adhesion to the wall.

In the event that the fastening system of the used insulation provides for the mandatory use of glue, many experts recommend using a special frost-resistant glue for the installation of WEBER THERM S100 facade insulation systems.

It has a high degree of vapor permeability and is ideal for expanded polystyrene, mineral wool and reinforcing elements for facade insulation. It can be used for facade insulation works at outside temperatures down to -10°C. It has an operating temperature of up to 40°C frost and frost resistance of at least 75 cycles.

WEBER THERM S100 adhesive can be used on brick, concrete and plaster surfaces. On the reinforced layer, made on top of the insulation, it is possible to use silicone, decorative and mineral plasters with special antifreeze additives. When preparing the adhesive in winter, it is recommended to use a mixer, since manual preparation at low temperatures adversely affects the quality of the adhesive solution.

It’s not uncommon on many construction sites when, as they say, winter takes you by surprise. This is not very correct.

It is better to spend a small amount of money on arranging a temporary roof, say, with the help of an ordinary roofing material and a crate made with boards at a distance of 30 – 40 cm.

Your money will pay off with interest, and this is especially important when brick walls were erected using effective (not cheap) heaters. Such insulation, placed in the structure of the walls, after getting wet, will lose most of its performance. If the erected brick walls are made for jointing, then when ice and snow melt, hard-to-remove stains can form on the surface of the brick. I want to divide a room with a glass partition without affecting the outer walls.

Recently, it has become popular and fashionable to use glass partitions in the redevelopment of private houses and apartments, as well as all kinds of sliding transparent structures.

These designs not only give almost any room a unique modern charm, but also make it possible to increase the functionality of the room. So, for example, you can separate the sleeping and working areas of the room, increase the volume of the room with one movement before the arrival of guests, etc. The use of glass partitions visually increases the space of the room, they let in daylight well and can be an excellent sound insulator.

Currently, glass partitions are produced in different sizes and different thicknesses, which is naturally reflected in their cost. In addition, there are many options for decorating glass with the help of tinting, applying all kinds of patterns using various tools and different techniques.

If we talk about the price of glass partitions, then it includes not only the size and thickness of glass partitions, but also the presence of a pattern, the strength of the product, the presence of additional requirements for safety and impact resistance. So, the price range can be from 90 to 900 USD. per m2.

This type of partitions does not provide for fastening either to the floor or to the ceiling. They can be easily moved or even completely removed. The material from which they can be made, purely theoretically, can be anything: from natural wood, plastic, PVC and ending with iron and glass. In most cases, mobile partitions are made from a combined material: the lower part is opaque (laminate, wood), the upper part is cellular polycarbonate, glass.

One of the main advantages of using mobile partitions is a quick and easy change, without the involvement of specialists, of the area of ​​​​different areas of the room.

There are no fundamental differences between sliding doors and partitions. Usually, sliding doors are called a structure that closes the doorway, and sliding partitions – which divides the room into parts, separates some of it.

The production of “warm concrete” is carried out in the factory. Such concrete is used mainly, although not only, in the winter period at low outside temperatures. In the manufacture of “warm concrete” crushed stone is heated to a temperature of 40 ° C, and water to a temperature of 80 ° C. The heated components of the concrete solution interact much better, which greatly increases the quality of the concrete.

Experts have noticed that the strength of “warm concrete” is higher than when concrete is heated in the formwork.

Thermal formwork is a special boards, which are insulated from the outside and equipped with electric heating elements. Tubular electric heaters (more and more rarely), flexible fabric tapes or heating electric cables are used as heating elements. When setting and solidifying the mortar at low temperatures, the thermal formwork ensures that the optimum temperature (heating) is maintained for high-quality hardening of the material.